Dr. Clifton Franklund
Professor of Microbiology

Periodontal Disease

Gum disease, or periodontitis, is a common inflammatory disease in humans. It is one of the most common causes of tooth loss in the United States and is associated with several serious clinical consequences.

Fusobacterium nucleatum

This slender gram-negative anaerobe is commonly isolated from the human mouth. It is able to form aggregates with a variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and is though to play a key role in dental plaque formation.


The outer leaflet of the gram negative outer membrane contains lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This important biopolymer is the immunodominant antigen of most gram negative pathogens.


I have gathered together the references for the other three sections of this project and place them here. Links are provided for each article in PubMed.

Research Interests

Most of my current research time is focused upon developing new instructional modules for my teaching labs. However, I still have an active interest in the research that I began at California State University, Long Beach. To learn more about this project, you can explore the information below.